Cornell’s Mental Health Review: Final Report

The Cornell University administration on October 22 released the Final Report of a nearly year-long Mental Health Review that contains 60 recommendations comprehensively calling for improvements in mental health and medical services, academic life, student well-being, and mental health awareness and proactive support.

Download Cornell University’s Mental Health Review Final Report

The administration at the same time announced the formation of a high-level Executive Accountability Committee, led by senior academic officials as well as senior administrators overseeing student affairs and Cornell Health, to evaluate and prioritize the recommendations.

The 34-page report’s recommendations include a mix of specific suggestions and identification of areas for further review. The report cited a need for upgrading psychological counseling services, but also strongly argued that fully supporting student mental health requires significant changes in academic policies and practices.

“Cornell, like its peer schools, must rethink what it means for students to strive for excellence, and design an enhanced version of excellence, which has as its foundation a healthy educational environment,” the report stated.

“While treatment offered by counseling centers can benefit students directly through symptom relief, increased levels of academic and social functioning, and increased retention and graduation rates, improving mental health requires a degree of culture change, which must be a university wide effort,” the report said.

“Students maintain a culture of competition in the curricular, co-curricular, and social spheres, which normalizes course and extra-curricular overloads that can become a detriment to physical and mental health,” the report’s authors wrote. “We have observed that the culture of competition may take on an unhealthy cycle of expectation and behavior that can reach traumatizing levels for students, faculty, and staff.”

The report expressed concern about the health and well-being of faculty and staff, and about the impact that increasing expectations has on their well-being and on their ability to support students. The report said the issue warrants continued attention but noted it was outside the scope of the review that was focused on student mental health.

The review was conducted during the 2019–20 academic year by a task force appointed in mid-2019 that included three experts from outside the university as well as faculty, staff, and students from the campus community. The task force submitted its Final Report in April just as the Covid-19 (coronavirus) pandemic was disrupting education at Cornell and on campuses across the country.

The review examined challenges affecting Cornell’s undergraduate student population as well as its graduate and professional students (numbering 14,743, 6,239, and 2,638, respectively, in Fall 2020). It included two campus surveys, 37 focus groups, five Telling Stories workshops, six World Café large-group dialogues, and meetings with undergraduate and graduate students, deans and faculty members, senior staff members, and campus healthcare providers. Additionally, the task force met with off-campus therapists and community mental health organizations. The task force also reviewed Cornell Health data, and examined mental health reviews conducted at other colleges and more than 70 student well-being programs and initiatives.

The 13-member internal Mental Health Review Committee, which included five students, was headed by Marla Love, senior associate dean of students, and Miranda Swanson, associate dean for student services in the College of Engineering. The External Review Team consisted of Michael Hogan, a former commissioner of mental health for New York State, Ohio, and Connecticut (chair); Karen Singleton, chief of Mental Health and Counseling Services at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology’s MIT Medical; and Henry Chung, senior medical director of care management organization at Montefiore Medical Center in New York.

The report highlighted one “overarching recommendation” to sustain the complex challenge of improving student mental health: “Creation of a widely representative permanent committee on mental health to ensure the implementation of immediate recommendations, and to monitor progress and conduct further review of those recommendations that will require more time and resources to enact.”

The External Review Team members stressed the importance of establishing a permanent committee on mental health “to act as a steward of this cause” in an April 15 report transmittal letter to Vice President for Student and Campus Life Ryan Lombardi. “An issue like mental health, which touches so many and is affected by every aspect of university life, requires consistent attention and a centralized effort across the university,” they wrote.

Hogan, Singleton, and Chung also cited the “distinctive role” the Cornell administration must play in implementing the recommendations. “Mental health must be championed at the highest levels of leadership in order for students, faculty, and staff to have the confidence to act,” they wrote.

The plea echoed the report’s introduction, which stated in part: “The recommendations that emerged from this process must be addressed and ongoing change led at an institutional level to ensure that mental health and wellbeing is valued and embedded in the culture of the university.”

Medical and Mental Health Services

In its assessments and recommendations, the report recognized Cornell’s history in the collegiate mental health field, and commended Cornell for providing “whole person,” or “integrated,” mental health care through Counseling and Psychological Services (CAPS) and Cornell Health’s primary care services.

The report noted “significant recent changes” to improve access to mental health services. These included the hiring of additional staff—according to the report, the number of budgeted fulltime CAPS therapists increased from about 28 in 2018 to about 38 in 2020.

The changes also included the adoption of a new service-delivery model in Fall 2019, which enabled 25-minute initial outpatient sessions virtually on demand, and offers students greater flexibility in choosing their therapists and scheduling appointments. “The approach has already led to increased utilization, significant reductions in wait times, and decreased referral to community therapists,” the report said.

With the recent changes, there is not currently a need for significant staff increases or expanded access to services, the report said. Yet, if access and quality of care cannot be sustained, the report added, future increases in CAPS clinical staff may be required.

The report said that student feedback indicated a strong preference for long-term, weekly 50-minute psychotherapy sessions at CAPS. However, the review concluded that such a practice was not justified based on research evidence about the effectiveness of specific psychotherapies as well as current practices in insurance coverage.

“This is not to say that there is no benefit to long term counseling,” the report explained. “Clinics and insurance plans encourage individuals desiring such care to seek and pay for it on their own, so that available resources are used to benefit the entire community, and can be focused especially on those with immediate and serious concerns.”

Nonetheless, the report stated that “continued improvements in the professional medical and mental health services at Cornell are necessary… [involving] a continuing, long-term quality improvement process, not a quick fix.”

The report called for continued efforts to balance increased demand for mental health services as well as medical services with “finite resources.” The report urged improvement efforts including measuring outcomes, working with data, sustaining staff quality, and measuring patient satisfaction and concerns.

The report specifically recommended that Cornell require annual professional development training for all clinical staff on topics including suicidal patients, risk management, and multicultural competency and threat assessment; create a patient advocate/ombudsman for students to register complaints and positive feedback; utilize the Zero Suicide Model self-study to determine needed improvements in suicide prevention; utilize best practices tools to provide optimal care for underserved populations such as LGBTQ+ students; develop a framework for mental health patient access and continuity of care; improve integrated mental health care; consider refocusing the “Let’s Talk” mental health outreach service on underserved students; consider consultation with the International Accreditation of Counseling Services to benchmark against other collegiate mental health services; and consider hiring a sports psychologist to address the particular needs of student athletes.

Healthy Educational Environment

Noting there is “much to celebrate” about Cornell’s educational environment, the Mental Health Review nonetheless made significant recommendations for addressing the “toxic effects” that Cornell’s academic and social culture can have on student well-being and achievement.

“Multiple measures indicate that the mental health needs of students have increased significantly in recent years,” the report stated. It cited Cornell PULSE/CUE surveys indicating that the proportion of undergraduates who reported that they were unable to function academically—missing classes, unable to study or complete homework, etc.—for at least a week in the past year due to depression, stress, or anxiety increased from 33 percent in 2015 to 42 percent in 2019. From Fall 2015 to Fall 2018, individual CAPS therapy encounters increased by 19 percent, the report added.

The report broadly pointed to pedagogical innovations that could play a role in decreasing student stress and anxiety, such as multiple and varied means of grading and evaluation, academic credit limits, and flexible timing in exam administration. The report recommended approaches to “foster community, collaboration, and autonomy” in academic and co-curricular life. The report also identified the need for increased “multicultural competency and fluency” and financial aid solutions addressing inequities to reduce stressors across Cornell’s changing racial, ethic, socioeconomic, and gender demographics. The report cited a need to address student stress over career prospects and graduate school admission.

The report specifically recommended that Cornell create a centralized mechanism for institutional oversight of academic policies and practices that negatively affect student mental health. It called for the mechanism to work closely with college/school leadership and faculty across Cornell to examine eight issues: grading on a curve; Pass/Fail grading for first-year students and certain types of classes for all students; academic work during scheduled breaks; credit limits; attendance policies, especially as related to mental health; workload outside of class; pre-enrollment syllabi availability; and mandatory meetings with advisors.

Cornell should address problems around prelim [mid-term exam] scheduling, raise the profile of advising as a critical component of student success, launch a uniform course feedback instrument, and encourage academic departments to conduct self-studies to identify key stressors for students and mitigation strategies for them, the report said.

The report called for mandatory mental health training for every faculty member and staff member at least once every two years, and said Cornell should encourage faculty to model and discuss behaviors that promote mental health in their course orientation lectures and initial meetings.

The report singled out Cornell’s graduate students, who play dual roles as students as well as teaching assistants (TAs), for requiring special attention. “Graduate students feel particularly vulnerable within Cornell’s rigorous yet loosely structured academic environment,” the report said. “Financial independence, loneliness and isolation, power differentials with faculty and mentors, work-life balance, and ambiguity and vulnerability in advisor/advisee relationships, seem to intensify stress in the graduate student experience.”

The report said that graduate students as well as professional students face special challenges related to social connectedness, work-life balance, and resilience. Classes, research, employment, and job searches limit the time they have to engage in activities that reduce stress, the report said. Moreover, it added, they tend to have few social connections outside of peers in their labs or programs, with whom they are often in competition for jobs and resources.

The report listed five proposals for addressing concerns raised by graduate students: train TAs in mental health and resilience so they can support their undergraduate students as well as self-manage their own well-being; create clear and consistent standards for PhD degree completion; develop a mechanism for reporting and acting on problematic thesis advisors; develop a template for documenting expectations when selecting an advising committee chair; and train new faculty advisors and graduate students in developing positive mentor/mentee relationships.

Social Connectedness and Resilience

Acknowledging benefits like diverse academic offerings, research opportunities, and a beautiful campus, the report nonetheless argued that “Cornell’s competitive environment, complex structure, and physical layout compound feelings of isolation… [C]ompetition and a culture of achievement at all costs pervade the academic and social environments and hinder social connections.”

The report cited factors such as a campus social life that is heavily dominated by fraternities and sororities, where hazing, sexual assault, and alcohol abuse are perennial problems; competitive application processes for club membership and leadership positions; lack of free and convenient fitness facilities; and Ithaca’s long, cold winters.

The report called for a centralized, campus-wide strategy, with substantial, personal, and sustained support from Cornell leaders, to live up to Cornell’s “Caring Community” slogan and promote messages and means for social connectedness and mutual support.

According to the report, the university has undertaken a series of substantive reforms to address hazing, sexual assault, and alcohol misuse in the Greek Letter community; the report said the review team members “strongly endorse these important and challenging steps as key aspects of supporting campus wide mental health.”

The report specifically recommended that Cornell establish a high-level task force to develop a campus-wide strategy for student well-being; foster stronger competence in new students for managing college transition; explore mental health training for campus housing Residence Assistants (RAs); expand outreach support to international students, transfer students, first generation students, veterans, and other vulnerable populations; expand opportunities for physical fitness and prioritize fundraising for fitness facilities; regulate application-based student organizations; incentivize student organizations to offer well-being programming; improve sense of belonging for students in campus housing; promote alcohol-free activities and night programming; expand campus and off-campus spaces for programming and social interaction; and establish a task force to promote Cornell pride and create new traditions.

Help-Seeking Behavior and People in Need of Care

Student demand for mental health services at Cornell exceeds expected use, according to the report. Yet, it said, students still express reluctance to seek mental health care. Among the reasons cited by students were lack of time, cultural aversion to help-seeking, negative experiences with help-seeking, confidentiality concerns, perceptions that their symptoms were “not bad enough,” and that “everyone is stressed” at Cornell.

The report said that while it is critical that all members of the university community play a part in recognizing and responding to students in distress and to those who could benefit from proactive intervention, faculty, staff, and students all expressed uncertainty about their roles and abilities to do so.

The report made 10 recommendations for promoting help-seeking behaviors. Among them: develop a single comprehensive source of information about health, mental health, and well-being; ensure all new students receive information about recognizing mental illness and support resources; use orientation materials to equip parents to recognize signs of distress, reduce stigma, and encourage help-seeking behavior; create a pre-departure guide for international students with information about arrival logistics, finances, the academic system, and mental health; implement a mental health awareness campaign; create a social media platform where faculty, staff, and students can model help-seeking behavior through sharing personal experiences; develop a comprehensive strategy for mitigating the intersection of mental health and alcohol use; and establish a protocol for students to notify faculty of health or well-being issues that affect attendance or work completion.

For identifying and supporting students in need the report made seven specific recommendations, including: improve the experience for students taking, being on, and returning from Health Leaves of Absence; increase the number of sexual victim advocates; improve the system for handling “Students of Concern”; develop a “Big Red Folder” as a quick reference guide for all faculty, staff, TAs, and RAs to assist students in distress; and increase staff resources at the Skorton Center for Health Initiatives to offer enhanced mental health training for faculty and staff.

Executive Accountability Committee

According to the Cornell Chronicle, the seven-member Executive Accountability Committee will oversee three teams focused on “implementing efforts in key areas – academic community, campus community and clinical services.” The committee is being led by Vice President Ryan Lombardi; Kathryn Boor, dean of the Cornell Graduate School and vice provost for graduate education; Lisa Nishii, vice provost for undergraduate education; and Sharon McMullen, assistant vice president of student and campus life for health and well-being.

“Moving forward to implement change will require careful reevaluation of our university priorities as well as changes within our policies and systems,” Boor said in an October 22 article in the Chronicle. “Implementing key recommendations will help to improve the well-being of our community, and more specifically, the well-being of our undergraduate, graduate and professional students.”

In September 2018, the Office of President Martha E. Pollack published a plan for a comprehensive review of student mental health services. Lombardi shared the decision in an email to students; and, in an email to the Cornell Daily Sun,said it “reflects the University’s commitment to promoting health and well-being as a foundation for academic and personal success.”

Throughout 2018, undergraduate students and graduate students separately formed task forces to lobby the university administration for improved mental health support and services.

In an April 2017 letter, Scott MacLeod and Susan Hack, who founded The Sophie Fund after their daughter Sophie, a Cornell student, died by suicide in 2016, called on the Cornell president to “establish an independent, external-led task force on student mental health without delay to review and assess the mental health challenges for Cornell students and the university’s policies, programs, and practices to address them, and to make recommendations to the Cornell president to ensure that the university is adopting and implementing current best practices.” They repeated the request in August 2018.

Responding in a letter on September 20, 2018, Pollack said that Cornell would conduct a “comprehensive review” and thanked MacLeod and Hack “for your advocacy for providing the best possible environment to support the mental health of Cornell students.”

The Sophie Fund gave a presentation with 22 recommendations last January 15 to the Mental Health Review teams.

DOWNLOAD THE CORNELL UNIVERSITY MENTAL HEALTH REVIEW FINAL REPORT RECOMMENDATIONS AT A GLANCE

Recommendations for Improved Student Mental Health at Cornell University

The Sophie Fund, briefing the Cornell University Mental Health Review teams this week, issued 22 recommendations for improving the institution’s student mental health conditions and services.

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Entrance to Cornell Health, Cornell University

Highlights of the recommendations include: aim for a student mental health “gold standard”; avoid excessive academic and social stress levels; upgrade clinical psychological counseling services; rationalize referrals to overburdened community mental health providers; effectively fight sexual assault and hazing; implement a student-centered health leave of absence policy; print the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline number on student ID cards; create an ombuds for student mental health; and establish a Standing Committee on Student Mental Health to regularly review Cornell’s practices.

“Cornell, in common with probably all institutions of higher education, is confronted by a student mental health crisis,” said Scott MacLeod, co-founder of The Sophie Fund, speaking in a video conference call with the heads of the Mental Health Review Committee and External Review Team. “In our increasingly complicated world, college students are dealing with immense pressures during a transitional time in their lives and at an age when they are vulnerable to the onset of mental illness.”

“Much more needs to be done by institutions of higher education—including Cornell—to address those challenges. We need to better support the legions of students who are struggling with anxiety and depression and other disorders so that their mental health experiences do not break their trajectory toward successful and fulfilling lives.”

MacLeod added that “leadership is the ultimate key to successfully addressing the crisis, especially given the complexities around mental health and the complexities of managing an extremely large institution. Leadership will make all the difference in whether Cornell achieves real progress in better supporting student mental health, or tinkers around the margins with no tangible and sustainable improvement.”

Cornell’s “comprehensive review of student mental health,” announced in 2018 by President Martha E. Pollack, is taking place throughout the 2019-2020 academic year. According to Cornell’s website, the internal Mental Health Review Committee “is tasked with examining the Cornell campus context, including issues pertaining to the academic and social environment, climate, and culture related to mental health.” The External Review Team “is charged with a comprehensive review of clinical services and campus-based strategies.”

Click here to read or download The Sophie Fund’s “Recommendations on Student Mental Health at Cornell University,” presented to the review teams on January 15.

Click here to read or download The Sophie Fund’s “Perspectives on Student Mental Health at Cornell University,” presented to the review teams on August 23, 2019.

Detailed highlights of The Sophie Fund’s recommendations:

  • Cornell leadership should humbly acknowledge the existence of the crisis and the systemic challenges that must be overcome, and commit to working vigorously and transparently with all stakeholders to address the crisis.

 

  • Cornell leadership should aim for a student mental health gold standard, sparing no effort or expense in finding ways to successfully address the student mental health crisis. The crisis demands a gold standard, not a band aid.

 

  • Cornell leadership should provide and be held accountable for student mental health resources that are commensurate with the challenges, sufficient to support best practices, and in proportion with spending on other institutional priorities.

 

  • Cornell leadership should implement a cross-campus framework for supporting student mental health and wellness, with the aim of strengthening accountability, streamlining policies, programs, and practices, and enlisting schools, faculty, staff, and students in a comprehensive, coordinated, results-oriented effort that prioritizes student mental health, healthy living, and unqualified support for every student’s academic success.

 

  • Administrators, deans, and department chairs must be fully engaged in avoiding excessive academic and social stress levels; providing reasonable accommodations for mental health and other disabilities; encouraging help-seeking behaviors; offering meaningful mentoring, advising, and tutoring; providing healthy residence life conditions; promoting resilience and coping skills; and in generally creating the “caring community” that Cornell aspires to be.

 

  • All faculty and staff should be provided with a “Gold Folder”—a one-page chart on recognizing signs of distress related to mental health or sexual assault, how to engage students in distress, and how to guide them to professional help.

 

  • Deans should be responsible for knowing the identities of Students of Concern and closely following their cases.

 

  • Administrators, deans, and department chairs must be engaged in identifying and supporting at-risk students.

 

  • Psychological clinical services must be upgraded to ensure that every student who needs help gets the best possible support, and that no student falls through the cracks of an overburdened and distracted healthcare system.

 

  • Cornell leadership should cease the practice of outsourcing student mental health treatment based on overburdened campus services. If more campus services are needed, then they should be provided.

 

  • Cornell should ensure that referrals to community providers are made solely on the basis of student preference, and are made to providers who are capable of accepting new clients and have been fully vetted.

 

  • Cornell leadership should develop and publish a comprehensive suicide prevention policy incorporating current and anticipated best practices, including the Zero Suicide Model in healthcare, and mandatory training in suicide prevention tools for gatekeepers including RAs, deans, department heads, and academic advisors.

 

  • Cornell leadership should develop new and effective strategies to combat the serious problems of sexual assault and hazing within its student body.

 

  • Cornell leadership should develop new and effective strategies for addiction prevention, intervention, treatment, and recovery support.

 

  • Cornell leadership should institute a mandatory online education module prior to freshman registration that provides students with information about mental health risk factors and warning signs, Cornell data related to student mental health, and resources for receiving support.

 

  • Cornell leadership should create and implement a leave of absence policy that prioritizes the interests of the student over those of the institution, and is designed to fully safeguard students’ health, academic, financial interests, and successful life trajectory. Cornell leadership must fully support students throughout the leave process—i.e., before, during, and after leaves are taken.

 

  • Cornell leadership should create an ombuds position to serve as an independent campus advocate for student mental health rights and to provide practical assistance to students navigating the university’s healthcare system and academic accommodations.

 

  • Cornell leadership should provide an effective factual presentation about student mental health risks and responses to parents of all incoming students before or during freshman orientation.

 

  • Psychological counselors and academic advisors should encourage struggling students to consult their parents and include them in discussions related to important decisions such as health leaves of absence.

 

  • Cornell leadership should leverage online platforms including Internet websites and social media accounts to deliver effective mental health education, effectively fight stigma and encourage help-seeking behavior, and most importantly, effectively provide resources for addressing mental health crises.

 

  • Cornell should print the telephone number for the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline on student ID cards.

 

  • Cornell leadership should establish a Standing Committee on Student Mental Health including a range of key campus stakeholders to regularly review Cornell’s policies and practices and issue annual reports on identified needs for continued quality improvement.

Support Student-to-Student Mental Health at Cornell University

Our country is experiencing a growing mental health crisis, one that is seriously affecting college students at a vulnerable transitional stage in their lives. More than 40 percent of college students surveyed said they “felt so depressed that it was difficult to function,” and 11.3 percent seriously considered suicide, according to the 2018 National College Health Assessment.

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Cornell students attending a Reflect dinner

As college administrations everywhere struggle to meet the demands for mental health services, students themselves are stepping up to support one another. Empowering students amid their struggles is an essential way of helping them fulfill their meaningful life journeys.

In this season of giving, The Sophie Fund invites its friends and supporters to consider a donation before the end of 2019 to The Reflect Organization, a nonprofit innovator in student wellness that is making a difference on the campus of Cornell University and several others.

To make a donation, go to: http://www.reflecteffect.org/donate

The timing is crucial: a generous anonymous donor has pledged to match all donations up to $100,000 made by a deadline of December 31. As of today, Reflect has raised $84,000 of the $100,000 target.

Reflect is the brainchild of Jared Fenton, who launched the organization in 2015 after one of his classmates at the University of Pennsylvania took her own life. Fenton believes that students can support each other by speaking openly and honestly about their mental health. To provide a space for that to happen, Reflect sponsors monthly dinners as well as mental health programs and trainings that are creating a culture of authenticity, self-love, and allyship on campus.

After graduating from Penn in 2016, Fenton began responding to requests to launch Reflect chapters on other campuses—so far, they are up and running at Cornell, Columbia University, Barnard College, Queens College, and La Salle University.

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Jared Fenton, founder of The Reflect Organization

Cornell students attending Reflect’s programs—and there are hundreds of them—report better connections with other students, more willingness to discuss personal mental health issues, and greater readiness to seek help when needed.

“One of the most empowering things about Cornell Reflect is that students are able to help their peers just by being open,” says Talia Ostrow ’20. “We are changing the campus climate to one of openness all on our own.”

Reaching the campaign target of $100,000, doubled to $200,000 through the matching donation from Reflect’s anonymous supporter, will enable Reflect to take its work to a new level. This $200,000 will make possible an expansion in Cornell Reflect’s training and outreach efforts, enabling the program to serve a wider range of students, more effectively. It also will help facilitate Reflect’s planned growth to serve students on even more campuses.

Make a donation before December 31 by clicking the link:

www.reflecteffect.org/donate

“This is What Healing Looks Like”

The Building Ourselves Through Sisterhood and Service (B.O.S.S.) Peer Mentorship Program needs your support! Our Cornell University group is fundraising for its 4th annual Mental Health Summit November 9-11.

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Please consider making a donation today! Click here to make a quick contribution:

https://crowdfunding.cornell.edu/project/15983

B.O.S.S. is a peer mentorship program for womxn of color at Cornell University. Our organization provides participants with tailored opportunities to connect and support one another as we navigate Cornell University and serve the greater Ithaca community.

A marquis event for B.O.S.S. is our Annual Mental Health Conference. For the past five years, B.O.S.S. has hosted a day-long mental health conference for womxn of color on campus, for the past two as a stand-alone organization in collaboration with many others including Cornell Health, Women of Color Coalition, and other groups.

The summit has given B.O.S.S. the platform to create a safe space for womxn of color to openly discuss their mental health, gain new techniques to better practice self-care, and discuss mental wellbeing within communities of color.

As a continuation on last year ’s Mental Health Summit, B.O.S.S. plans on expanding that day-long cornerstone summit to a multi-day summit. Our theme this year will be “This is What Healing Looks Like.”

This year, our overall goal is to explore ways to heal and grow within ourselves and practice techniques to establish a state of serenity and balance, even when we have gone through difficult phases within our academic, professional, or personal lives.

Similar to last year, we will extend invitations to surrounding schools, such as Ithaca College and Tompkins Cortland Community College, and other Ivy League institutions to hear about their best practices.

Additionally, we will facilitate workshops on topics such as body image and self-care, have bonding events, host community dinners, and create spaces for conversation as well as quiet reflection to suit a variety of participants.

Your contributions to such an important event, will allow for B.O.S.S. to be able to put on an even more rewarding and healing. With you donation, B.O.S.S. will be able to put on an even more rewarding and healing experience for womxn of color. Donations will be used to cover associated conference costs such as workshop material costs, speaker expenses, space rentals, food expenses, and relaxation station costs, among other things.

Thank you!

—By Amber Haywood

Amber Haywood is the co-president of Building Ourselves Through Sisterhood and Service (B.O.S.S.)

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Get a Cupcake Button!

Student organizations are fanning out across Ithaca to support this year’s “Cupcake Button Fundraising Campaign” organized by The Sophie Fund, which will hand over all donations to the Advocacy Center of Tompkins County.

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Students will be tabling at GreenStar Natural Foods Market, on college campuses, and other locations around town, collecting donations in exchange for a colorful button featuring a painting of a cupcake. The campaign is held in conjunction with the annual Ithaca Cupcake Baking Contest, which will be held in the Ithaca Commons on Saturday, October 19.

“We are honored to designate the Advocacy Center as the recipient for this year’s Cupcake Button Fundraising Campaign,” said Scott MacLeod, a co-founder of The Sophie Fund. “The Advocacy Center does incredibly valuable work in our community, fighting sexual assault and domestic violence and providing essential support to victims of abuse.”

Last year’s cupcake button campaign raised $1,367.50, which was given to the Mental Health Association in Tompkins County.

Student groups participating in the 2019 campaign include:

—Active Minds at Ithaca College

—Active Minds at Ithaca High School

—Cornell University student organizations: Cornell Minds Matter; Alpha Phi Omega Gamma Chapter; Phi Sigma Pi honor fraternity; PATCH (Pre-Professional Association Towards Careers in Health); and the Mortar Board Der Hexenkreis senior honor society

Image caption: Detail from Evolution (2009), a painting by Sophie Hack MacLeod